The forests of Congo are home to more than 148 mammal species, 678 bird species and nearly 4 183 plant species, of which 3,000 are endemic. However, as humans populations and industrial exploitation of natural resources expands, access routes are established in formerly remote areas, and urban societies advance further and further into the forest. Many of the large mammals which are found in the region, such as forest elephants, western gorillas and chimpanzees, are now endangered. Also the marine animals and landscape of Congo is under pressure from illegal trawler fishing boats (mostly Chinese), offshore petroleum plateforms (pollution) and local over fishing. By far the most important challenge has arisen since 2008 and concerns the dimension of ivory poaching pressure throughout Africa, with Northern Congo having possibly lost 70% of its elephants in the lastv 3 years.