Convention on Biological Diversity

The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework under the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) will be adopted at CBD COP-15, set to be organized in Montreal, Canada, in December this year. The Framework comprises 21 broad-based action targets and 10 ‘milestones’ proposed for 2030 to drive a transformation in the society-biodiversity relationship to fulfil the Convention’s 2050 vision of “living in harmony with nature”. 

As a culmination of the same, WCS-India launched a digital literacy and outreach campaign in April 2022 to generate awareness and understanding about the significance of the 30x30 Target (target 3) of the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework. The 30x30 Target is an initiative by a coalition of governments and NGOs which aims to protect and conserve 30% of Earth’s land and sea areas through ‘area-based conservation measures’, especially areas of particular socio-ecological importance for biodiversity and its various services to people by 2030. By protecting at least 30% of such regions (minimum 30% based on scientific evidence), the world gets a renewed chance to address climate change, halt and reverse irreparable biodiversity loss and species extinction, and ensure the continued benefits people derive from biodiversity. 

Explore our work here:



Digital Literacy and Outreach



Nature without borders


The Wildlife Conservation Society - India, with support from Rohini Nilekani Philanthropies and Rural India Supporting Trust (RIST), hosted 'Nature Without Borders' at the Bangalore International Centre. This event brought together conservation experts from diverse geographies, members of community-conserved areas, scholars, and folk artists to bring about dialogue on inclusive approaches to conservation. The theme was centred on exploring the idea of 'Other effective area-based conservation measures' (OECMs), an approach to conservation that is separate from the traditional focus on Protected Areas such as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. With the global initiative to protect 30% of the planet’s land and sea by 2030, OECMs have become highly relevant today.

Read more about OECMs here!

Videos from the event:

The journey of implementing OECMs in India: Keynote talk by Dr V.B. Mathur

Living with Forests: Rights-based biocultural conservation in Arunachal Pradesh

Panel Discussion - Exploring inclusive frameworks for conservation in India

Performance by Ustad Gazi Khan Barna and the Manganiyars

Read more about the event here!



Articles and Policy Briefs

What the '30 × 30 Target' Could Mean for India’s Marine Biodiversity

India – as a party to the international Convention on Biological Diversity – recently expressed its support for a global target known colloquially as ’30×30′. Its aim is to protect and conserve 30% of the world’s land and water, including terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. By meeting the target, India could also protect its marine biodiversity, provide food and water security, and promote community-led climate adaptation governance. If implemented equitably by involving local fishers and indigenous communities in the decision-making process, the 30 × 30 Target could help India attain twin goals – the sustainable development of its coasts and people and conserving its unique coastal and marine biodiversity.

Read more here!


Lessons from the Hilsa: An Aquascape Approach to the Sustainable Management of Blue Foods and Threatened Aquatic Species in the Bay of Bengal (in press)

This policy brief highlights the need to take on a regional ecosystem approach and argues for a sustained capacity development strategy that will be implemented at multiple levels, viz., the local (community level), mid-management (forest and fisheries), national and regional when it pertains to the conservation of aquatic biodiversity and the sustainable management of the Bay of Bengals´ productive, albeit stressed fisheries resources. The major threats to marine biodiversity, including overfishing, pollution, and habitat destruction, threaten the livelihoods and lives of millions of people in this region. A regional approach to managing the Bay of Bengal marine ecosystem that also considers the entire watershed from mountains to the ocean – the Aquascape will be crucial. 



Further Reading and Resources

  • Woodley, Stephen et al. A review of evidence for area-based conservation targets for the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. PARKS Journal. Link (2019).
  • The Wire Science. What the ’30 × 30 Target’ Could Mean for India’s Marine Biodiversity. Link (2021).
  • Cambridge University. Protecting 30% of the planet for nature: costs, benefits and economic implications. Link (2020).
  • The Wire Science. We’re Losing Something – But Are We Right To Call It ‘Biodiversity’? Link (2021).
  • The Third Pole. Will 30×30 reboot conservation or entrench old problems? Link (2021).
  • IUCN, Introduction to Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs), Link (2021).
  • Government of India. Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures Official Website. Link 
  • UNDP. Criteria and Guidelines for Identifying Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs) in India. Link (2022).
  • UNDP. A Compendium of OECMs in India. Link (2022).
  • IUCN. Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs): Exploring the Potential in Asia. Link (2020).
  • Marine Conservation Institute. MPA Atlas. Link.
  • Convention on Biological Diversity. First Draft of Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework. Link (2021).
  • CBD. Convention on Biological Diversity. Link.
  • UN. Paris Agreement. Link. (2015)


Get in touch with us

Dr Aaron Savio Lobo
Senior Advisor,  Marine Programme, WCS-India

Ms Shyama Kuriakose

Legal Head, WCS-India







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