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WCS Conservation and Communities Resources

Publications

Read publications and other documents about Conservation and Communities by WCS scientists and partners.

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A guide to the modified Basic Necessities Survey - Why and how to conduct BNS in conservation landscapes.
Author(s): David Wilkie, Michelle Wieland and Diane Detoeuf
Year: 2015
Description/Abstract: French version also available.
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society, USAID
Full Citation: Wilkie, D., Wieland, M. and Detoeuf, D. 2015. A guide to the modified Basic Necessities Survey: Why and how to conduct BNS in conservation landscapes. WCS, New York, USA
Guidelines for Learning and Applying the Natural Resource ​Governance Tool (NRGT) in Landscapes and Seascapes
Author(s): David Wilkie, Diane Detoeuf, Michelle Wieland and Paul Cowles
Year: 2015
Description/Abstract: French version also available.
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society, USAID
Full Citation: Wilkie, D., Detoeuf, D., Wieland, M., and Cowles, P. 2015. Guidelines for Learning and Applying the Natural Resource Governance Tool (NRGT) in Landscapes and Seascapes. Page 55. USAID, Washington, D.C. and WCS, Bronx NY. USA
Directives pour l'apprentissage et l'application le 'Natural Resource Governance Tool' dans les paysages terrestres et marins
Author(s): David Wilkie, Diane Detoeuf, Michelle Wieland and Paul Cowles
Year: 2015
Description/Abstract: English version also available.
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society, USAID
Full Citation: Wilkie, D., Detoeuf, D., Wieland, M., and Cowles, P. 2015. Guidelines for Learning and Applying the Natural Resource Governance Tool (NRGT) in Landscapes and Seascapes. Page 55. USAID, Washington, D.C. and WCS, Bronx NY. USA
Guide de la “Basic Necessities Survey” Modifiée - Pourquoi et comment mener la BNS dans les paysages de conservation
Author(s): David Wilkie, Michelle Wieland and Diane Detoeuf
Year: 2015
Description/Abstract: English version also available.
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society, USAID
Full Citation: Wilkie, D., Wieland, M. and Detoeuf, D. 2015. A guide to the modified Basic Necessities Survey: Why and how to conduct BNS in conservation landscapes. WCS, New York, USA
Scenarios of deforestation in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape
Author(s): Lilian Painter, Teddy Marcelo Siles, Ariel Reinaga, Robert Wallace
Year: 2013
Publisher: Tacana Indigenous People Council, Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Painter, L., T. M. Siles, A. Reinaga and R Wallace. 2013 Scenarios of deforestation in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape. La Paz, Bolivia: Tacana Indigenous People Council and Wildlife Conservation Society.
A Gender Perspective on Securing Livelihoods and Nutrition in Fish-dependent Coastal Communities
Author(s): Elizabeth Matthews, Jamie Bechtel, Easkey Britton, Karl Morrison, Caleb McClennen
Year: 2012
Description/Abstract: Women and men play different roles in fishing communities around the world, however in all communities the failure to engage women in management efforts results in lost opportunities to improve conservation practices and ensure secure, viable livelihoods. WCS has identified a portfolio of opportunities around the world where understanding gender dynamics more broadly and engaging women specifically can provide positive and long-lasting environmental change and improve coastal and fisheries management efforts. We have leveraged our global network of sites to identify a broad and relevant set of core gender-related strategies and recommend the best solutions, for both WCS and the wider conservation and fisheries community. This report summarizes the findings of WCS’s effort to provide a contextualized assessment of opportunities for improving the livelihoods of people involved in small-scale fisheries and marine conservation by focusing on the impacts of gender dynamics and women’s engagement.
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Matthews, Elizabeth, Jamie Bechtel, Easkey Britton, Karl Morrison and Caleb McClennen (2012). A Gender Perspective on Securing Livelihoods and Nutrition in Fish-dependent Coastal Communities. Report to The Rockefeller Foundation from Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY.
Protected Areas, Governance and Scale
Author(s): Kent H. Redford, Catherine Grippo (eds)
Year: 2008
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Redford,K.H. and C. Grippo, eds. 2008. Protected Areas, Governance and Scale. WCS Working Paper No. 36. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society.
Landscape Conservation in the Amazon Region - Progress and Lessons
Author(s): Michael Painter, Ana Rita Alves, Carolina Bertsch, Richard Bodmer, Oscar Castillo, Avecita Chicchón, Félix Daza, Fernanda Marques, Andrew Noss, Lilian Painter, Claudia Pereira de Deus, Pablo Puertas, Helder Lima de Queiroz, Esteban Suárez, Mariana Varese, Eduardo Martins Venticinque, Robert Wallace
Year: 2008
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Painter, M., A.R. Alves, C.Bertsch, R. Bodmer, O. Castillo, A. Chicchón, F. Daza, F. Marques, A. Noss, L.Painter, C. Pereira de Deus, P. Puertas, H.L de Queiroz, E. Suárez, M. Varese,E.M. Venticinque, and R. Wallace. 2008 .Landscape Conservation in the Amazon Region: Progress and Lessons. WCS Working Paper No. 34. Bozeman: Wildlife Conservation Society.
Protected Areas and Human Livelihoods
Author(s): Kent H. Redford, Eva Fearn (eds)
Year: 2007
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Redford,K.H. and E. Fearn, eds. 2007. Protected Areas and Human Livelihoods. WCS Working Paper No. 32. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society.
Protected Areas and Human Displacement - A Conservation Perspective
Author(s): Kent H. Redford, Eva Fearn (eds)
Year: 2007
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Redford,K.H. and E. Fearn, eds. 2007. Protected Areas and Human Displacement: A Conservation Perspective. WCS Working Paper No. 29. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society.
Poverty, Development and Biodiversity Conservation - Shooting inthe Dark
Author(s): Arun Agrawal, Kent Redford
Year: 2006
Description/Abstract: "Poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation are basic social goals and part of the policy agenda of postcolonial states and international agencies. It is not surprising therefore that a large number of programmatic interventions have aimed to achieve the two goals at the same time. These interventions are funded by governments, conservation NGOs, bilateral and multilateral donor agencies, and private sector organizations. In this paper, we first examine the conceptual discussion around poverty and biodiversity, and then analyze three such interventions: community-based wildlife management, extractive reserves, and ecotourism. Our discussion shows that the literature on these programmatic interventions depends on relatively simplified understandings of poverty and biodiversity in stark contrast to the theoretical literature on the two concepts. Further, writings on programmatic interventions tend to operationalize poverty and biodiversity in distinct and quite different ways. Our analysis focuses on peer-reviewed writings and finds that 34 of the 37 identified studies share two common features: a focus on processes and outcomes in a single case and single time period, and a drastic simplification of the complex concepts of poverty and biodiversity. In addition, the cases we examine are relatively inattentive to the relationships between observed outcomes and the contextual features of programmatic interventions. As a result of these shared features, the mass of scholarly work on the subject does not permit systematic and context-sensitive generalizations about the conditions under which it may be possible to achieve poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation simultaneously. The vast sums channeled toward joint achievement of poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation are all the more remarkable in light of the basic lack of evidence on the extent to which these goals can jointly be reached. In conclusion, we discuss steps toward a rejuvenated research agenda for better knowledge and policies related to the links between poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation."
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Agrawal, A. and K.H. Redford. 2006. Poverty, Development and Biodiversity Conservation: Shooting inthe Dark? WCS Working Paper No. 26. New York. Wildlife Conservation Society.
Casting for Conservation Actors - People, Partnerships and Wildlife
Author(s): Oscar Castillo, Connie Clark, Peter Coppolillo, Heidi Kretser, Roan McNab, Andrew Noss, Helder Quieroz, Yemeserach Tessema, Amy Vedder, Robert Wallace, Joseph Walston, David Wilkie
Year: 2006
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Castillo, O., C. Clark,P. Coppolillo, H. Kretser, R. McNab, A. Noss, H. Queiroz, Y. Tessema, A.Vedder, J. Walston, and D. Wilkie. 2006. Casting for Conservation Actors: People, Partnerships and Wildlife. WCS Working Paper No. 28. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society.
Natural Alliances between Conservationists and Indigenous Peoples Wildlife
Author(s): Kent H. Redford, Michael Painter
Year: 2006
Description/Abstract: The survival of both indigenous peoples and much of what remains of nature lies in the ability of both sides to find common ground. However, parks and protected areas have become the focus of conflict between conservationists and indigenous peoples. This antipathy is based on differing views about the nature of human impact on the natural world and masks the strong potential for these two groups to work together. In this paper we provide a case study illustrating how effective such cooperation can be. The Kaa-Iya del Gran Chaco National Park and Integrated Management Area was designed and implemented as the result of a collaboration between the Wildlife Conservation Society and the Capitanía de Alto y Bajo Izozog, the organization representing the 10,000 Guaraní people known as Isoceños. The park, encompassing approximately 3.5 million hectares of Bolivian Chaco, is the only national park in the Americas established on the initiative of a Native American People, and the only one where a Native American organization shares primary administrative responsibilities with the national government.
Publisher: Wildlife Conservation Society
Full Citation: Redford, K.H. and M.Painter. 2006. Natural Alliances between Conservationists and Indigenous Peoples. WCS Working Paper No. 25. New York: Wildlife Conservation Society.
Guiding principles for evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on human well-being
Author(s): Emily Woodhouse, Katherine M. Homewood, Emilie Beauchamp, Tom Clements, J. Terrence McCabe, David Wilkie, E. J. Milner-Gulland
Year: 2015
Description/Abstract: Measures of socio-economic impacts of conservation interventions have largely been restricted to externally defined indicators focused on income, which do not reflect people's priorities. Using a holistic, locally grounded conceptualization of human well-being instead provides a way to understand the multi-faceted impacts of conservation on aspects of people's lives that they value. Conservationists are engaging with well-being for both pragmatic and ethical reasons, yet current guidance on how to operationalize the concept is limited. We present nine guiding principles based around a well-being framework incorporating material, relational and subjective components, and focused on gaining knowledge needed for decision-making. The principles relate to four key components of an impact evaluation: (i) defining well-being indicators, giving primacy to the perceptions of those most impacted by interventions through qualitative research, and considering subjective well-being, which can affect engagement with conservation; (ii) attributing impacts to interventions through quasi-experimental designs, or alternative methods such as theory-based, case study and participatory approaches, depending on the setting and evidence required; (iii) understanding the processes of change including evidence of causal linkages, and consideration of trajectories of change and institutional processes; and (iv) data collection with methods selected and applied with sensitivity to research context, consideration of heterogeneity of impacts along relevant societal divisions, and conducted by evaluators with local expertise and independence from the intervention.
Journal/Source: Philosophical Transactions B
Publisher: Royal Society Publishing
Full Citation: Woodhouse E, Homewood KM, Beauchamp E, Clements T, McCabe JT, Wilkie D, Milner-Gulland EJ. 2015 Guiding principles for evaluating the impacts of conservation interventions on human well-being. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370: 20150103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0103
Protected areas and poverty
Author(s): Daniel Brockington and David Wilkie
Year: 2015
Description/Abstract: Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice.
Journal/Source: Philosophical Transactions B
Publisher: Royal Society Publishing
Full Citation: Brockington D, Wilkie D. 2015 Protected areas and poverty. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370: 20140271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0271
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